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carrier in network engineer (hardware):
Computer hardware engineers research, design, develop, test, and oversee the installation of computer hardware. Computer hardware includes computer chips, circuit boards, systems, modems, keyboards, and printers. (Computer software engineers design the programs to run computers.)

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2. Centre for development of advance computing , Chandigarh.

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4. Linux learning centre , Banglore.

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AN ANALYSIS OF DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM AND DISPUTES INVOLVED

By

Pankaj Kumar

 

Introduction

 

Just few years back born ‘the concept called internet’ multiplied itself in such a fast rate that now it emerged with different products, relating to almost every field of the economy. It entered into the business world in such a way that it resulted in the emergence of new policies, laws, bodies, etc of the government, new profession, society, means of communication and many other things. Pointing towards the negative side of this development, we can see the problems standing side by side of this development. It gave room to a separate branch of crime known as ‘cyber crime’. There is another major problem for which most of the countries are not even matured to cope with it. This problem is known as ‘domain name disputes’. This aspect of IP laws is currently dealt under trademark laws of many countries, and on the other hand World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) have also developed certain policies to resolve these disputes. Now days the fight for domain names is not only affecting the rights of the holder but also adversely affecting the business cycle of the world.

 

WHAT ARE DOMAIN NAMES?

 

Internet has created a global society in which we have been allotted the intangible houses for which the main gate is tangible, known as ‘computers’. The term ‘address’ for this society has been replaced by the term ‘Uniform Resource Locator’ (URL). The representations of this URL are known as Domain Names. The computers identify themselves by the help of a unique number known as the Internet Protocol (IP) number. Since these numbers are difficult to remember, it has been represented by particular names which we called as the domain name. For example, ww.lawspace.com   

 

In technical sense, domain name comprises group of alpha numeric characters separated by dots. The first part is ‘www’ is the indicator of World Wide Web. The second part is generally comprises the name of the enterprise, brand name, trading name or sometime personal names which is known as second level domain name. It is associated with the third part known as top level domain names. This top level domain name identifies the nature or location of the organization. These TLDs are classified into two types- gTLDs or generic Top Level Domain names, which is the indicator of nature of organization and ccTLDs or country code Top Level Domain names, which indicates the location of organizations.

 

DOMAIN NAME MARKET

 

The market of these intangible assets is one of the youngest and fastest growing markets in the globe. The basis of this market is all about searchable keywords that are both generic and descriptive. With online ad spending increasing at a rate of 30 percent a year, owing domain names has become a business in itself. Entrepreneurs can flip them, like Miami Condominiums, or they can sit on them and collect rent. Today, lots of domain name brokers are available world wide selling the domain names through auction sales with their specific selling procedures. Some of the brokers cum sale agents are Domain mart, e-bay, domain tools, etc. Today people are buying lots of domain names as an advertising tool, rather than as a brand name for their website.

The latest big deal of domain name was for the URL ‘seniors.com’ which took place 15 days back at the domain name auction, hosted by Monikers.com in New York. The bidding started at 0,000 and blasted through seven figure mark at .8 million.

 

Some of the biggest sales of domain names are described as under following sequence:

Serial no.

Domain Name

Amount

Seller

Buyer

1

Sex.com

million

Garry Kremen

Escom LLC

2.

Porn.com

.5 million

Moniker.com

MXN

3.

Business.com

.5 million

-

ECompanies

4.

Diamond.com

.5 million

Odimo

Ice.com

5.

Beer.com

million

Bill Fisher

Interbrew

 Source- Times of India, dated- July 3, 2007.

 

DOMAIN NAMES AND TRADEMARKS.

 

In a landmark decision of Delhi high court on Yahoo case, Hon’ble Justice Dr. MK Sharma, citing the case of Cardservice International  Inc. Vs McGee, held that ‘the domain name serves the same function as the trademark and is not a mere address and therefore entitled to equal protection as a trademark.’ In the countries all over the world the domain names have been treated as specie of trademark. As far as India is considered, all the disputes relating to domain name is being governed by the Trademark Act, 1999. In India, till date there is not a single court which has treated domain name as a distinct entity from that of the trademark. Various questions arose relating to the jurisdiction of the court to deal with the cases in which domain name has been registered outside India since the trademark Act is restricted to India only. Hon’ble Justice in the Yahoo case itself, citing the case of NR Dongre Vs Whirlpool Corp, made this confusion clear, where WHIRLPOOL, though a dictionary word and not registered in India as a trademark, was entitled to protection as its reputation had traveled transborder to India.

In a recent case of Satyam Infoway Ltd. Vs Sifynet Solutions Pvt. Ltd; the apex court gave the outstanding opinion over the confusion relating to the relation between Domain name and trademark. The principle question involved in this case of appeal is whether internet domain names are subject to the legal norms applicable to other IP such as trademark?

Explaining the principle of domain name, the Hon’ble Supreme Court opined that ‘with the increase in the commercial activity on the internet, a domain name is also used as a business identifier. Therefore Domain name not only serves as an address for internet communication but also identifies the specific internet site. In the commercial field, each Domain name owner provides information/services which are associated with such Domain name. Thus the domain name may pertain to the provision of services within the meaning of section 2(z) of trademark Act’. Apart from these, there are various authorities which talks about Domain names and trademark as the belongings of the same family.

But apart from similarities, the Hon’ble court has also pointed out several dissimilarities between thou but even then it is not relevant to the nature of the right of an owner in connection with the Domain names but is material to the scope of the protection available to the right. The distinction lies in the manner in which the two operate. A trademark is protected by the laws of the country in which it is registered. Consequently, a trademark may have multiple registrations in many countries of the world. On the other hand, since the internet allows for access without any geographical limitation, a Domain name is potentially accessible irrespective of the geographical location of the consumers. The outcome of this potential is that the national laws became inadequate to effectively protect a domain name. This lacuna has been realized by the internet bodies like WIPO and ICANN and thereafter a Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy has been framed and is made applicable to all member countries of the world.

 

What are domain name disputes and why they arise?

 

The original role of a Domain name was no doubt to provide an address for computers on the internet. But the internet has developed from a mere means of communication to a mode of carrying on commercial activity. With the increase of commercial activity on the internet, a Domain name is also used as a business identifier. Therefore, the Domain name not only serves as an address for internet communication but also identifies the specific internet site. In the commercial field, each Domain name owner provides information/services which are associated with such Domain name. Moreover as discussed in the previous paragraph relating to the domain name market, it can be analyzed that how professional this domain name system has become. To gather wealth, the illegal activities relating to Domain name took birth which engendered several disputes. The concepts like cyber squatting, typo squatting, Meta tags, etc. got added in the dictionary. 

Cyber squatting

It is the practice of registering the well known brand names, corporate names, celebrities or trademark as the domain name for various purposes. The purpose may be to attract the consumers to use their products and services or to abuse the brand or corporate names of its holder or mostly to get an opportunity to sell those domain names at the price much higher than the amount required for registration. Cyber squatters cause great hardship to the original holder of the reputation. They violate the ‘first come first serve basis’ of the domain name registration and exploit the natural connection between the domain name and the trademark. The first cyber squatting case arose in 1994 and then it multiplied within itself in such a fast rate that it made the international bodies to draft separate policies for it. Courts in countries like India, US etc. found that the offer to sell the domain name to owner of an identical or similar trademark was a trademark infringement.

Illustration: A leading case involving a cyber squatter, Panavision Int. vs. Toppen, where Dennis Toppen was a cyber squatter who registered hundreds of domain names using well known marks of others with the stated intention of selling or licensing them to the true owners. Toppen registered the domain name a€œpanavision.coma€ and offered to sell it to Panavision Inr for ,000. The corporation, which owned a federal trademark registration for PANAVISION, sued Toppen for TM infringement and dilution under the Federal TM Dilution Act of 1995. Court held in favour of Panavision.

US have introduced an ‘Anti Cybersquatting Act’ in 1999 in order to punish the cybersquatters.

Typo squatting

It is also similar to cyber squatting but the only difference is that in this there is no direct infringement of the rights but it is done indirectly. Typo squatting, also called as URL hijacking, is a form of cybersquatting which relies on mistakes such as typographical errors made by Internet users when inputting a website address into a web browser. Internet users may accidentally enter an incorrect website address, and they may reach to an alternative address owned by a cybersquatter.

Generally, the victim site of typosquatting will be a frequently visited website. The typosquatter’s URL will usually be any of the four kinds, all similar to the victim site address, for example:

For the intended website “lawspace.com”, a typosquatter may use:

  • A common misspelling of the intended site—- lawspaces.com
  • A misspelling based on typing errors———– lawspac.com
  • A differently phrased domain name—— spacelaw.com
  • A different top-level domain————————- lawspace.co.in

Sometimes, the typosquatters will use the false addresses to distribute viruses, adware, spyware or other malware. Some are also shock sites. More common are benign domain parking sites, selling advertising to firms based on keywords similar to the misspelled word in the domain.

Once in the typosquatter’s site, the user may also be tricked into thinking that they are in fact in the real site; through the use of copied or similar logos, website layouts or content. Generally, competitors of the victim site do this.

John Zuccarini, who redirected domains targeting children to pornographic websites, infamously used this tactic.

The victim may take the following steps to get away from the problem:

  1. A victim website will usually send a letter to the offender at first, in an attempt to quell the activity.
  2. It may also try to purchase the website address from the typosquatter, which could have been the typosquatter’s aim all along.
  3. A Company may try and preempt typosquatting by obtaining a number of websites with common misspellings and redirect them to the main, correctly spelled website. For example www.gooogle.com, www.goolge.com, www.gogle.com www.gewgle.com, and others, all redirect to www.google.com.

Microsoft has released new software to help combat this issue. The software is called “Strider Typo-Patrol”. This is a tool that scans and shows third-party domains that is allegedly typosquatted. It also lets parents restrict access to typo-squatting domains that show sexually oriented ads on typos of children’s web sites.

Typosquatting and the law 

In very rare case the people go for the law suits. “Typosquatting” is a meaningless term where the law is concerned. Laws generally are not concerned about registrations of domain names that are similar to other domain names or similar to existing trademarks, unless some other important factor is involved.

Bonafide/ non-competing use.

In many cases it can be observed that though the TM is same but there is no claim of infringement. For example the term ‘prestige’ is used by prestige cookers, prestige meridian, and many others industries and organizations. But as far as the domain name is considered, only one of the organizations can have prestige.com. So this comes under the legitimate claim cases. Even if any of the organization get the domain name ‘prestige.com’ registered, it will not amount to violation of TM. In this type of cases, US court emphasized that mere registration of domain name without any malafide intention i.e. to sell or block the TM holder from using the same etc. is not sufficient to constitute commercial use. It has been held that mere registration or activation of domain name does not constitute commercial use even when the domain name includes the ‘.com’ designation.

 

DOMAIN NAME DISPUTE RESOLUTION

There are many international bodies which are playing very active role in evolving appropriate methods for settlement of disputes relating to domain name and trademark violations. This technological world is united through e-mails, mobile phones, internet, satellites, etc. In today’s world IP forms an integral part of the economy and the IP assets are being globalize and harmonized. So to maintain harmony, the international bodies are mandatorily required to be active regarding the issue.

WTO’s Role- The impetus behind global trade mark law harmonization is the World Trade Organization (WTO) TRIPs (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property) Agreement of 1994, effective January 1 1995. TRIPs stems from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which establishes the most favoured nation (non-discrimination) principle. GATT and the WTO view trade mark counterfeiting and intellectual property irregularities as distortions of legitimate trade. Its solution, therefore, involves confronting the “trade-related aspects of intellectual property” to maintain a “level playing field.” Accordingly, the WTO is seeking ways to combat counterfeiting and raise worldwide minimum standards for intellectual property protection.

Art. 16 of WTO TRIPs Agreement extends the protection of well-known marks to “the goods or services which are not similar to those in respect of which a trademark is registered, provided that use of that trademark in relation to those goods or services would indicate a connection between those goods or services and the owner of the registered trademark and provided that the interests of the owner of the registered trademark are likely to be damage by such use”.

 

Role of WIPO and ICANN: Though the area of IP disputes is a semi-researched one, efforts are being continuously made in this direction.

Since the cyber space lacks its boundary so there is the requirement of UNCITRAL Model Law to deal with the matters, and arbitration is being viewed as a most appropriate mode of dispute resolution in this arena. WIPO is acting as the major arbitrator provider along with others. WIPO also has its rules of arbitration so as to provide a UNCITRAL Model of Law, though its provisions differ from that of Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996. Under this law, sole arbitrator is appointed by each party and the third arbitrator is appointed by the consensus of the two selected arbitrators. The arbitrator selected must be fully skilled in the whole aspects of IP laws. WIPO provides a huge database of 1000 independent WIPO arbitrators and mediators from 70 countries. Apart from mediation and arbitration, WIPO also provides for Expedited arbitration which can be called as advancement over arbitration. It carries out arbitration in very short time frame and at reduced cost.

Recognizing the problems raised by clash between domain name system and trademarks, WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Centre is developing an online internet based system for administering commercial disputes involving intellectual properties.

With the nod towards WIPO, ICAAN has announced plans to use an arbitration panel to resolve disputes over domain name ownership before cases reach the court. WIPO established its own internal arbitration panel to handle such international disputes. National Arbitration Forum as an outsider source also preferred to resolve disputes over cyber squatting.

To control and resolve the disputes WIPO has formulated Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), adopted by ICAAN in the year 1999.

 

Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy

 

The outcome of consultation between ICANN and WIPO has resulted in the setting up not only of a system of registration of domain names with accredited Registrars but also the evolution of the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDNDR Policy or UDRP) by ICANN.

This policy has been adopted by ICANN on August 26th, 1999 and was approved on October 24th, 1999. . While registration with such Registrars may not have the same consequences as registration under the Trademarks Act, 1999 nevertheless it at least evidences recognized user of a mark. This policy sets out the terms and conditions in connection with disputes between the parties over the registration and use of an Internet domain name registered by a party.

a€œThe UDRP created a streamlined ‘cyber arbitration’ procedure to quickly resolve domain name ownership disputes that involve trademarksa€. Though UDRP uses the arbitration as an ADR process but this arbitration process is not same as that of an ordinary arbitration. This has also been called as an Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) by some of the writers. This arbitration is completely carried out online and physical presence is not necessary.

While the system has been both severely criticized and praised, it is clear that the UDRP has been heavily relied upon. As of today around 10,000 decisions, resolving approximately 13,500 domain names have been published.

Meeting the targets that were initially intended to, the UDRP has successfully provided an easy, quick and affordable way of resolving domain name disputes. The procedure, which is entirely online, costs approximately 00 and is – in the majority of decisions – concluded within 45 days. Concomitantly, the scope of the Policy is limited only to the cases of ‘cybersquatting’ or those of ‘cyber piracy’.

The UDRP is a mandatory procedure, applicable to all registrants of generic top-level domain names (gTLDs). Any trademark owner, who believes that his trademark rights are infringed by a domain name registration can initiate a complaint with one of the arbitrator providers accredited by ICANN: Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution Centre; The National Arbitration Forum (NAF); or World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Each provider determines the cost of the complaint based on their supplemental rules, the number of panelists and the number of domain names included in the dispute. Fees range, approximately, from ,250 for a dispute involving a single panel and a single domain name to 00 for a dispute involving a three-member panel and over five domain names.

Paragraph 2 of this policy necessitates the warrant from the parties that the registration of domain name will not infringe or violate the rights of any third party and registration is not for unlawful purpose and the domain name will not be used in violation of any applicable laws or regulations. This casts responsibility upon the party to determine whether his domain name registration infringes or violates someone’s rights.

Under paragraph 4, this policy provides for mandatory administrative proceedings for only those disputes where the complainant can prove that:

  1. Domain name is identical and confusingly similar to a TM or service mark in which the complainant has rights.
  2. The person has no rights or legitimate interest in respect of the domain name and
  3. Where the domain names have been registered and are being used in bad faith.

Circumstances which are considered as bad faith has been defined in paragraph 4(b) of this policy, which comprises of cyber squatting, commercial purpose and disruption of competitor from conducting his business.

The complainant is provided with the choice of opting for a one-member or a three-member panel. Each panel serves as the definitive factor in deciding the case. Moreover, if the complainant chooses a one-member panel, the domain name holder (the respondent) has the choice of disregarding his decision and opting, instead, to have the dispute heard by a three-member panel.

The respondent has a twenty-day deadline to respond to the complaint as raised by the trademark owner and submit a written response to the Provider. In case the respondent fails to submit a timely response, the panel will almost certainly decide the action based solely on the complainant’s arguments.

Awards

Unlike winning a domain name dispute in court, where the prevailing party may be the beneficiary of a monetary award, the only award, which the UDRP is able to offer, is the cancellation or transfer of the domain name and thus the change of the domain name registration only when the requirement of paragraph 3 of the policy is fulfilled. In such a case, only the complainant, the party that has the power to initiate a UDRP action, receives an award upon victory. If the domain name holder succeeds, he receives nothing and the domain name registration remains in its initial status. There is no provision of costs and damages payable to the winning party by the loosing party.

 

The non-binding nature of UDRP decisions

 

Paragraph 4(k) of the policy is very clear in describing the non binding nature of the decisions.

Unquestionably, the most significant difference between the UDRP and typical arbitration is that the UDRP proceedings are subject to de novo review in court. By contrast no arbitral procedure is subject to de novo review, since, unless exceptional circumstances require it, arbitration calls for the finality of awards. This very point was well explained in the Parisi v. Netlearning, Inc. case.

 

In that case, Dan Parisi registered the domain name a€œnetlearning.coma€ with Network Solutions Inc. (NSI), an ICANN accredited registrar. Netlearning, Inc. initiated a UDRP proceeding against Parisi challenging this registration. The three-member panel that was appointed to determine the dispute voted two-to-one in favour of Netlearning. The three-member panel directed NSI to transfer the registration for a€œNetlearning.coma€ to Netlearning. Parisi filed a declaratory judgment action seeking a declaration that his registration and use of the disputed domain name was lawful. Netlearning moved to dismiss on the grounds that Parisi’s motion was in effect a motion to vacate an arbitration award and that Parisi failed to demonstrate cognizable grounds for such an action under the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) and the New York Convention. The court, per Judge Brinkema, denied Netlearning’s motion to dismiss.

 

Even if the panel decides that the domain name should be transferred or cancelled, ICANN will provide the respondent the discretion to submit documentation of his commencement of formal litigation against the complainant within ten days. If the domain name holder meets this requirement successfully, ICANN will stay the decision of the UDRP panel pending court resolution. For ICANN not to enforce the initial decision and follow the court ruling it needs to receive evidence that: 

 

  • The parties resolved the dispute;
  • The lawsuit has been dismissed; or
  • The court has found that the domain name holder no longer has the right to use the domain name.

 

The fact that the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution is non-binding may be related to the fact that the official text of the UDRP refers not to a€œarbitrationa€, but to a a€œmandatory administrative proceedinga€, though without further clarifications. Even though this may be nothing more but a semantic difference, most possibly the difference is of more significance. The idea is that the UDRP drafters understanding that their process is not conventional by what ordinarily is defined as a€œarbitrationa€ decided to clothe it under the term a€œmandatory administrative proceedinga€.

Advantages

  • Alternative dispute resolution process – discovery procedures, trials or juries.
  • Many domain name registries in the United States and other countries participate in the policy
  • In many cases it provides quicker results – 60 to 120 days from filing to decision, with the panel having14 days to render a decision once it is appointed.
  • It is typically less expensive than filing a lawsuit .
  • It is a more simplified process
  • There is no jurisdiction requirement – everyone who registers a domain name in the appropriate gTLD or ccTLD is subject to arbitration
  • Panels usually consist of lawyers and judges knowledgeable in the field

 Disadvantages

  • There is no right to a series of replies or responses unless the information is specifically requested by the arbitration panel.
  • The registrant can continue to use the domain name during the pendency of the UDRP proceeding.
  • The only remedy available to the complainant is transfer or cancellation of the domain name – there is no right to damages, injunctions or attorneys’ fees.
  • The only remedy available to a respondent in the event of loss is bringing a new trial in court – no appeal is available.
  • Panels are given a wide discretion concerning admissibility of evidence.

Conclusion

By seeing all these developments within a small time frame, an analogy can be drawn about the development of the intellectuals in this world. This systematic procedure has resulted in the settlement of thousands of disputes in a quick time. This shows a positive sign towards the development of this branch. But even though there are certain areas that are still remain vague and are the root of confusion. Generally most of the confusion arises with respect to the conflict between the UDRP arbitration panel’s decision and the decision of the domestic courts in the common matters. The courts are still in dilemma on the situation when both the judicial body is of contrary view. The main reason behind this confusion is the one-man rule over the cyber world. So in this situation, the necessity required is to bifurcate of the power of adjudication. Process is currently going on in India and china to evolve their own root domain name so as to have a hold over the disputes and making the policies relating to domain name disputes in conformity with domestic laws. But this process is getting some opposition from superpowers. Thus an amicable settlement of this issue is much required to bring more harmonization in the domain name dispute resolution process.

 


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As digital information replaces the soon to be obsolete print form of news, the website has become an appendage of our being. It is no coincidence that the first page our wandering eyes visit is called the home page. We spend more time surfing the web and becoming upset when we do not receive enough website traffic, than complaining about getting stuck in actual street traffic. But there is an ultimate purpose to this madness. Without a website you will not be reading this right now. Without a website I would not have written this piece. So, one of the major important reasons for having a website is to provide information. More and more people will learn about the world’s current events not by reading a newspaper but by checking out Yahoo’s front page. A newspaper is a day late, so therefore it is not really news. If you want to view “New News” you would need to be on the internet. However, information does not have to be factual it could simply be someone’s rant about how their piano playing cat did not receive enough hits. Blogs have replaced the teenage girl’s diary stereotype and has opened the doors to even grown men and women who give us their thoughts sprinkled with some words of wisdom.

Information and Blogging

Blogging has become another past time of its own. One of the main reasons for its popularity is that most of the blog sites are free. Which means you do not need to be 18 to enter in payment information to buy a product.  This has introduced a wide variety of people to posting and uploading information onto the net.  Stories of little girls from Malaysia flying over to LA and recording a major record deal just because the executive liked their YouTube videos, is a direct result of the power of the almighty blog. Now granted YouTube is more of a video social networking site than a blog itself but the idea remains the same. Although you can post videos of yourself onto your own websites, Blogs are most commonly used for pictures and text. Two of the most popular blog websites are Blogger.com and BlogSpot. Both of these websites are free and are easy to use. Now remember how I said that there will be more young people using blogs? Despite the must be 18 age restriction there is a high number of younger people blogging more than ever today. A direct result of this is MySpace. which is mostly composed of 14 year old girls looking to find a man will give her positive comments of her cell phone mirror pictures (Emphasis on the word positive.)Regardless of its popularity, if you are concerned that your child may be blogging, sit down and have a talk about its pros and cons. If your child really wants a blog, then make him or her agree that they will not post any information that could get them into trouble. As the social networking trophy goes to Twitter, people are posting their every impulse to the world. It is not uncommon for me to randomly stumble upon a past tweet I made about a bad potato salad. I even watched an episode of a girl that was upset at her man for “Twittering” so much that it was causing problems with their relationship. I digress. Be aware of the dangers. There have been countless cases of kids getting arrested for having a beer in their hand on Facebook and stalkers coming to the front door because the home was address listed on the blog. With that in consideration I will begin talking about word press.

Word Press is the most popular blogging plug-in for a website. These means that along with all of the blogger.com style blogs, there is a plethora of individually owned websites that post blogs as well. Let’s be honest, there are a lot of strange opinions and views from twisted minds that are posted in blogs. However in their minds this is simply information that they are sharing, like what I am trying to accomplish to do here. Although a blog may contain what is considered to be “opinions,” the author is providing information to one person or another for good or for bad. Even if the author believes that what they are writing is simply a rant, it could help someone if all they are looking for is something to read.This then brings up the topic of positive vs. negative information. I know the title is the importance of a web site; it should really be “The Importance of Having a Useful Website.” I can’t say positive because that will mean that we could not have” how to articles “on making curry. Curry is neither good nor bad. It simply is currya€¦.a food.  A useful website provides information in the form of positive thoughts, directions for things, and just “things” that are for sale. Now you could say that some websites do not sell useful things but if they decided on making a website to sell their “things,” then a large enough group of people would have to like these “things.”

E-Services and Usefulness

Although e-services is a relatively unknown name to some, useful websites cannot all be categorized as e-commerce. You do not have to sell something to be useful. Now the cynic in you is probably thinking what about Google Ad sense? That’s a good question but the average person does not click on ads. I do not and I would make a firm assumption that neither do you. Although ads may be placed all around the border you do not feel pressed to click. Useful sites may even offer information about products that are for sale, but the web page does not have to be a market place. If you do not own an e-commerce business than promoting your product and knowledge of your area of expertise on the web is one of the most common reasons for creating a website. a webmaster may feel that they have something to share, whether it is a thought, trade, or product. If you feel like the public can benefit from something that you can offer, than it is worth considering building a website. Like I said it does not have be an ordeal. There are numerous free hosting sites so it does not have to be a big financial investment either, although a website in general is a major investment for a business overall. I want to dispose the myth that having a website is dangerous. Having a dangerous website is dangerous. If your website is not dangerous, then you will most likely not risk any danger. This however, gets into how danger is based on one’s perception but I will not get into that now. It is no secret that the information is advancing at light year speed. If you are not familiar with basic internet functions such as creating accounts, clicking on links and forming online discussions than you need to start a website. By having a serious website you will be forced to learn how to build one, regardless if you got the information from another source. The method of how you did it is not the focus, rather it is the fact that you actually did it.

Feels Good

One can say that the feeling of clicking on one’s first website URL is comparable to holding a newborn. Well not exactly, but websites in general can resemble children to us. Even though the coffee stain on the keyboard isnt exactly a dirty diaper, managing a website does take alot of time.  If you are able to work yourself around Adobe Photoshop, you can create your own custom banners, backgrounds, and layout templates for your site. If you are adept in these areas you may even consider building a website that provides these very services. Let’s face it there are more sites offering tips on Word Press themes than directions on how to make kim chi. Once you start receiving positive comments, RSS subscribers,  and high traffic, you will begin to feel that you have accomplished something and that other people believe it was helpful too no matter how stupid or unoriginal you may think the idea was.

 


Hostgator Support Magento

Small businesses often require a unique business solution in order to establish themselves among their counter-businesses. Features such as that of web hosting or translation service are vital for a small business to develop a unique and compelling performance over the internet as well as the international domains. It should be understood that business websites play an important role in determining the ROI as well as its effectiveness among the audience. Search engines are key elements for promoting a business, which makes it essential that web design is in terms with the search engines. Given how all these elements take part in launching a small business into a projected future, gaining professional services for website hosting as well as web ecommerce looks essential.

 

If a business pertains to act a trade platform, it is essential for it to have the optimal software technology that could bring forth the intended services. For developing a good web ecommerce, the use of latest technologies such as that of magento hosting is of vital importance. Hosting services from a Singapore web hosting offers the elements of security as well as dedicated server for a better experience with e-trade. Dedicated server will render you a complete command to your business, which helps in registering the intended returns on investments. Furthermore, a dedicated server also makes sure that your business receives a better bandwidth, thereby allowing an enhanced traffic movement, kernel upgrades, application updates, security fixes, as well as service packs within your website. It also helps in efficient management of the existing resources over the network.

 

Singapore web hosting also helps a business with a better domain name. A domain name sets forth the recognition of your website as a unique name over the internet. When a Seo company integrates domain names with that of the website IP address, it is actually helping the website with a bettered identity as well as online presence. The work of a seo Singapore does not end with web hosting. It has equal role to play in allowing a business to set a good online trade. A typical seo Singapore would present efficient magento hosting as the possible solution for launching e-trade. For instance, magento developer is the key to boost an online trade. It offers cost effective solutions alongside better flexibility in order to adjust as per the ongoing market trends.

 

Magento developer integrates a website with tools such as that of easy purchasing options and better security that allows a business to develop friendly relations with the trading markets. Alongside the hosting services, a Seo company also offers web design models that make a website in terms with the requirements of search engines. For instance, the designing of a website is crucial for determining its compatibility with the search engines as well as the customers. Issues such as that of browser compatibility, better navigation, keyword rich content, are key elements in making a business thrive uneven times.

 

Translation service is another of the crucial elements for a business looking to enter international frontiers. A translation service pertains to translating website information, business profile, as well as product information into the language dominating the geographical domain. This allows a small business to establish a better expectancy rate while boosting its efficiency.

 


Hostgator Reseller Ssl

With communication convergence, information highway has attained a new dimension. Websites are now the popular and easy way of communication and web hosting companies have come forward to facilitate the global and Australian companies in their process of initiating web presence. There are numerous web based service providers and it is often difficult to identify a suitable one. Self analysis and research is often advised but that too is nowadays an online process. So, hardly anyone can deny the importance of websites. Finding the right Australian web based service provider is not at all a challenge as many of the web development companies are offering complete website hosting services.

Selecting a domain name is easy when the business vertical is identified; it is worth to note that the domain extensions comprehensively denote purpose of the businesses. The business organizations buy domains ending with .biz; the educational institutes usually use .edu. On the other hand several corporations want to highlight name of the country for which the web site has been developed. So, the process of domain selection is indeed interesting and in case of any confusion it is best to consult with a proper website hosting company. Short domain names are easy to remember and type in while browsing. For businesses with long names it is best to break the domain names for better purposes.

The main purpose of the businesses are simple, it is just product promotion and increase of ROI or return after investment of some money in a particular venture. As Australia successfully implemented electronic commerce, several website hosting companies have mushroomed. It is best to do some self research before selection of a proper web design company. Nowadays the reputed web design companies are reselling domains. Shared use of a server is now widely in vogue. The mid and small sized businesses are eying for shared domain and at the same time the big firms and big business players are using self owned servers. The administrational facilities remain more in case of self owned servers.

There are plenty of online discussion forums and just sitting in front of the personal computer we can know more about the best possible options of website hosting. Cheap web hosting is interesting but it might have detrimental effects as well. A site reflects a company’s image and Australians are sensible about usability of sites. Several sites that have fallen to the traps of free hosting or free hosting, later suffered a lot. Slow download of a site drives the visitor towards an alternative one. A comparative analysis before selection of a website is of immense help. Free consultation that the different website hosting companies offer makes estimation of investment for launching a website much clear.


Domain Name Hosting

Domain Name Hosting Privacy

Author: Robert J. Miller

Did you know that when you register a domain name your personal information is made public.  Imagine your home address and phone number being listed on the World Wide Web for all to see, all over the world!

ICANN

What is ICANN ? The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, is a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation from all over the world dedicated to keeping the Internet secure, stable and interoperable.  They require domain name providers to make your contact information public in order to resolve technical problems quickly, to enforce consumer protection, trademark violations or enforcement of other laws.  The information is also used to validate requests to transfer a domain name registration to another registrar company.  For instance, you register your domain name with company ‘x’ and after five years, you decide to transfer to company ‘y’.  Here is how your information can be used:

  • Businesses or individuals who are interested in obtaining an already registered domain name can use the information to determine when the domain name expires.
  • Law enforcement agencies can use the information to investigate illegal activities on the Internet. 
  • Intellectual property rights holders can use the personal information to contact those in violation of intellectual property rights such as trademark infringement. 
  • Disgruntled customers could use the information to call you at home or perhaps, drive to your house.
  • Agencies can use the information to send you junk mail. 

 

How much of your information is made public?

Among the information included in the search results is

  • Name, address, phone number and email address
  • Date domain was registered.
  • Date that the domain name will expire.
  • Host name and IP addresses.

 

If you already have a domain name, you can search the WHOIS database to see what data is visible to all Internet users.  To search the WHOIS database, enter the web address you wish to search at www.markmonitor.com (look for the search WHOIS box). 

What can you do to protect your private information?

It is possible to register a domain in the name of a third party, as long as they agree to accept responsibility — ask your registrar for further details.  You are strongly encouraged to use this option to keep your information from being exposed 24/7! 

 

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/domain-names-articles/domain-name-hosting-privacy-541763.html

About the Author

Robert J. Miller provides web hosting information, free scripts, articles and resources at

www.tenbestwebhostingsites.com